Dagga/Cannabis

Dagga / Cannabis

Dagga or Cannabis is well known in South Africa. It is surrounded by various myths,
of which the following is mentioned often:

“Dagga is derived from the earth and is therefore a natural product”
“My child can rather use Dagga than stronger drugs”

Dagga however, is extremely dangerous. It hampers the physical development of a child and
canlead to psychological defects. The greatest danger of Dagga is that it is a forerunner for
harderdrugs; therefore it is known as the “Gate Way Drug”. It has been proven time and again
(bothduring interviews and court cases) that nearly every drug offender started by experimenting
with Dagga.

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WHAT IS DAGGA?

Dagga is a green plant-like substance derived from the Dagga plant. The Dagga plant can be
found in the form of a bush and the size is dependent on various factors, for instance the
temperature in which it grows, the rainfall, the nutrients in the soil in which it grows and some
of the inherited genes in the seeds that are being used during the planting process. There is a
wide variety in sizes of the Dagga plant. A characteristic of the Dagga plant is the leaf that can
be found in the form of a hand and that usually consists of an uneven number of leaves,
usually five, seven, nine or eleven leaves, situated on the stem.

The botanical name for Dagga is Cannabis Sativa. Dagga / Cannabis falls in three (3)
categories – Indicia, Ruderalia and Sativa. There are sixty-one (61) cannabinols that are
synthesised by the plant. The active ingredient of the plant, namely Delta 9
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is responsible for most of the outstanding characteristics of the
psychoactive effects of the plant. THC is a very complex substance and is slowly metabolised
by the body. It takes approximately thirty-days for the body to rid itself of the THC of one (1)
Dagga cigarette. In certain parts of the body it can take up to six (6) months.

STREET NAMES

– Marijuana
– Zol
– Skyf or Shit
– Joint
– Weed
– Grass
– Pot
– Boom
– Ganja
– Dope
– Hash
– Smoke
– Hemp
– Green Gold

METHOD OF USE

Dagga is primarily smoked and is usually mixed in with tobacco because Dagga doesn’t burn
easily on its own. The tobacco of a cigarette would be removed and would then be mixed in
with Dagga (pips and stems are removed) and would be placed back into the cigarette or
Rizla (handmade cigarette).

A very popular method of smoking Dagga is in the so-called “Bottle Neck” or Pipe that is
brokenoff or is cut from the bottle by means of a shoelace. This pipe is then filled with Dagga
and smoked. Usually where the “Bottle Neck” is involved, Mandrax will also play a role.

The abuser will fold a piece of paper, also known as a Diamond” which will be put into the one
end of the bottle and utilized as a filter. The smoking of a Dagga cigarette is known as “Slow
Boat”.

Dagga can also be mixed with cake flour from which Dagga cakes are made which can be
eaten, and can also be used in the form of a tea for the so-called medicinal use. According to
the National Narcotics Control Board there is no medicinal use for Dagga recognized in any
country and there is no scientific evidence that the Dagga plant as such has any medicinal
purposes that have not been substituted by safer drugs.

Dagga is not sold at street level in the form of a plant, but is packed in various ways in which
it then is being sold.

DISTRIBUTION OF DAGGA

The South African climate is very favourable for the growth of Dagga. The plants are found in
Dagga plantations and can grow up to 3m high and 15cm in diameter. The Dagga plant is then
chopped off and dried in the sun. The total eradication of Dagga is hampered because of the
fact that Dagga is planted in areas that are inaccessible, such as cliffs and high mountains. In
Swaziland it is only possible to get to these plantations by means of the use of helicopters.
ThisDagga that is harvested, is physically carried out by the smugglers to assembly points
from where it is then taken across the border by other means.

In Lesotho however, only 4 x 4 vehicles and motorbikes can reach the Dagga plantations. Still,
99of this Dagga gets transported out of the area by means of pack animals such as donkeys.
In Malawi Dagga is planted kilometres from the roadside in the middle of mealie fields, sugar
plantations and densely bushed areas, which makes the monitoring and destroying thereof
verydifficult. There it is found that the Dagga is physically carried by the smugglers to the
assembly points.

In the Eastern Cape (former Transkei and Ciskei) and Kwazulu Natal it is a traditional source of
income to farm Dagga. The Eastern Cape is one of the largest Dagga producing areas in South
Africa. The total number of confiscations done by the South African Police Service can verify
this. Shots are regularly fired at policemen during Dagga destroying operations, because
Dagga is known as “Green Gold” and is the main source of income for thousands of
people in these areas.

The first phase of organized Dagga smuggling takes place by means of the big scale transport
of bags of Dagga or compressed Dagga blocks. These bags of Dagga are transported by trucks
to the various distribution points in the country. Various cases were found where these bags
were covered with human faeces to disguise the strong smell thereof during transport.
Organized drug syndicates run this known method of smuggling and corrupt customs officers
and police officers are used to promote the process.
– Price: R800 – R1600 (Depending on the availability and the quality.
– Weight: 8 – 14 Kg.

Dagga is taken from the bags and repackaged in what is known as an “Arm”. The name “Arm” is
derived from the packaging method. Dagga is rolled up in newspaper and brown paper in the
length and thickness of a man’s forearm. It has been found that the length and thickness of an
“Arm” vary in certain smuggle areas.
– Price: R60 – R90 (Depending on the weight and the quality
– Weight: 650g – 1Kg

STREET PACKAGING
General price of R1 per one gram is applicable

– Bank bags
– Blades
– Fingers
– Matchboxes
– Durban Poison / Sticks
– Malawi Cobs

COMPRESSED DAGGA

Dagga is compressed in 1kg blocks in order to make packaging and smuggling easier.
Compressed Dagga is usually destined for the European and North American markets,
where there is a great demand for Dagga from Southern Africa.

The value of 1kg-compressed Dagga overseas is approximately R1 000.

HASHISH

Dagga can also be obtained in the form of Hashish. Hashish is a thick tar-like substance
and looks like sticky toffee that has melted. Hashish is basically the resin of the Dagga plant
that is extracted when the plant is compressed when it is wet. This resin is then dried and
marketed.

A piece of this resin is broken off and is usually smoked in what is known as”Hubbly Bubbly”.

Hashish is more concentrated than Dagga and there are users that claim that it is 30
stronger than Dagga.

Price: R10-R30 per gram

EFFECTS OF DAGGA

According to users, the effects of Dagga will vary from person to person.

Dagga is a light depressant and when it is smoked the effect thereof will be felt within
minutes and reaches its peak after about three (3) minutes.

Dagga will hold the effect on the body for a period of two (2) to three (3) hours.

The stronger the dose of Dagga that is taken the longer and more intense the so-called
“Trip” will be.

Dagga has the effect to speed up the pulse rate of an individual and the blood pressure drop
drastically.

It also causes a dry mouth and in certain cases it causes hallucinations.

A serious thirst, an increase in appetite especially for something sweet (which is called
“Munchies”), aggression, light headedness and forgetfulness in certain users are caused,
especially when it is used together with the consumption of alcohol.

There are cases of synaesthesia reported, where music is seen and colours heard.

FURTHER SIDE EFFECTS OF DAGGA

– Brain damage
– Amnesia
– Sterility
– Emphysema / Lung diseases
– Emotional and Spiritual problems
– Lowered Libido
– Weakened Liver functions
– Overall deterioration in health

Dagga has a negative effect on the short-term memory and users thereof become anxious,
which leads to paranoia. The long-term use of Dagga can lead to lung cancer and various
sources have been quoted to state that Dagga is more damaging to the lungs than normal
cigarette smoke. It has a definite effect on the development of the body and can harm
unbornbabies. The metabolites of Dagga stay in the lungs for a very long time and also
affect the immune system. The users of Dagga are usually very apathetic and their
performance at work and at school will deteriorate drastically.

Dagga is a dependence forming substance and causes the tolerance effect where people who
smoke Dagga have to increase their use of this drug to create the same effect (High). It was
also found that with certain individuals Dagga has a stimulating effect, for example: in the
beginning of the Century, the Chamber of Mines instituted more breaks during working hours,
in order to give the opportunity to the workers to smoke Dagga in order to improve their work.

NOTICEABLE SIGNS OF A DAGGA USER

– Bloodshot and sleepy eyes
– Unnatural thirst or hunger
– Uncontrollable moods / mood swings
– Talkative or Giggles
– Bad decision-making
– Stains on hands

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

The following physical signs can be an indication that an individual or individuals
are using Dagga:

– Dagga seeds or pips lying around
– Dagga rests or dust found in pockets of clothing
– Broken bottles or bottle necks
– Rizzla machines and papers and rasta colours (red, green and yellow)
– Unknown odours in home and incense burnt in rooms
– Eye drops or Lip ice that is used extensively
– Empty bank bags
– Lotto or Tab tickets that was folded
– Empty matchboxes
– Brown paper – packaging of “Sticks”
– Untidy lifestyle

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Dagga is not originally derived from Africa. Cannabis Sativa, the gene name for Dagga,
originated in the Far East, from countries such as China and Thailand. In the Indian
subcontinent legends and traditions have it that Dagga was used as a method to enhance
meditation and concentration. In certain parts of India, Dagga, where it is known as “Bhang”
is prepared in the form of a syrup that is used during spiritual occasions and is prescribed by
certain religions as compulsory.

Ganja is also seen in India as a form of prestige and was prominent during certain Indian
parties. In South India it was a habit to distribute Ganja amongst guests at weddings to show
the host’s respect toward his guests. Certain African tribes have over the years made
excessive use of Cannabis. In Tanzania this drug found its way into a diet in the southern
highlands where Cannabis seeds and leafs were used as a spice during the preparation of
certain vegetable dishes. Traditional doctors in Tanzania made extracts of the Cannabis
plantthat was then used to cure earache. Cannabis entered South Africa via Mozambique.
For years Dagga was supplied to black mine workers to enhance their work performance.
It was also known that there were certain secret movements where people used Dagga in
vast quantities.

South Africa is traditionally one of the largest Dagga producing countries in the world. Dagga is
primarily cultivated in Kwazulu Natal, the Eastern Cape (especially the former Transkei),
Swaziland and Lesotho. This Dagga has for years been exported to America and Europe and
is then exchanged for more serious drugs such as LSD and Ecstasy. In 1928 the cultivating
and use of Dagga was prohibited (banned) in South Africa.


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